All-cause and CVD mortality in Native Hawaiians
N. Emmett Aluli, Phillip W. Reyes, S. Kalani Brady, JoAnn U. Tsark, Kristina L. Jones, Marjorie Mau, Wm. J. Howard, Barbara V. Howard
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among Native Hawaiians. In this article, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates among Native Hawaiians are examined, along with associated CVD risk factors. Methods: A total of 855 Native Hawaiians (343 men and 512 women, ages 19–88) were examined as participants of the Cardiovascular Risk Clinics program (1992–1998) and underwent surveillance through September 2007. Cause of each death was determined by review of medical records, death certificates, newspapers, and through queries to community members. Results: CVD accounted for 55% of deaths. Coronary heart disease (CHD) accounted for the majority of CVD deaths. CVD increased with age and was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, or high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). CVD rates were higher in men than in women and fourfold higher in those with diabetes. In addition to age, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated LDL-C were major risk factors. Conclusions: Diabetes is a major determinant of CVD in this population and most of the CVD is occurring in those with diabetes. Strategies to prevent diabetes and manage blood pressure and lipids should reduce CVD rates in Native Hawaiians.