Restoring Balance to Hawai‘i: “Ku-pa‘a i ke Kahua o Hawai‘i”
Joseph Keawe‘aimoku Kaholokula
Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology
Dr. Crabbe presents a broad overview of the sociohistory of Hawai‘i following western contact and its colonisation by the United States (US). He describes the constant political, societal, and psychological struggles of Kānaka Maoli (native Hawaiians) against the never-ending tides of foreign influences to the shores of Hawai‘i. Within his sociohistorical overview, three significant issues for Kānaka Maoli are emphasised. One issue is that of ‘Āina land. (The word ‘Āina is capitalised throughout because, in the Native Hawaiian worldview, ‘Āina is a living entity who gives and sustains life; it is an ancestor of the Hawaiian people, and it is important to the existence of Kānaka Maoli.) The second issue has to do with Kānaka Maoli is identity, which has been impacted by various foreign contacts and US colonisation that has negatively impacted traditional Hawaiian practices, customs, beliefs, language, and society. The constant struggle of Kānaka Maoli in regaining sovereignty, or self-determination, is a third issue of significance in Dr. Crabbe’s article. This article will briefly discuss the interplay among, and significance of, these three issues: ‘Āina, Kānaka Maoli, and sovereignty, focusing on the importance and relevance of the first for the second and third.