Semiconductor-based sequencing of genome-wide DNA methylation states
Michael J. Corley, Wei Zhang, Xin Zheng, Annette Lum-Jones, and Alika K. Maunakea
Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) is a widely used approach to study DNA methylation genome-wide. Here, we developed a MeDIP-Seq protocol compatible with the Ion Torrent semiconductor-based sequencing platform that is low cost, rapid, and scalable. We applied this protocol to demonstrate MeDIP-Seq on the Ion Torrent platform provides adequate coverage of CpG cytosines, the methylation states of which we validated at single-base resolution on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, and accurately identifies sites of differential DNA methylation. Furthermore, we applied an integrative approach to further investigate and confirm the role of DNA methylation in alternative splicing and to profile 5mC and 5hmC variants of DNA methylation in normal human brain tissue that is localized over distinct genomic regions. These applications of MeDIP-Seq on the Ion Torrent platform have broad utility and add to the current methodologies for profiling genome-wide DNA methylation states in normal and disease conditions.