A Cultural Dance Program Improves Hypertension Control and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Native Hawaiians: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Background: Native Hawaiians have higher hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates than non-Hispanic whites, calling for culturally responsive interventions to close this gap.
Purpose: We tested the effects of a 6-month behavioral intervention, a cultural dance program based on hula (the customary dance of Hawai’i), for improving blood pressure (BP) and CVD risk among Native Hawaiians with uncontrolled HTN.
Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, we tested the effects of the hula-based intervention among 263 Native Hawaiians with uncontrolled HTN (systolic ≥ 140 or ≥ 130 mmHg if diabetes) and no CVD at enrollment. All participants received a brief culturally tailored heart health education before random assignment to the hula-based intervention (n = 131) or the education-only waitlist control (n = 132). Intervention received hula lessons and group-based activities for 6 months. Control received only 1-week education through 6 months.
Results: Intervention yielded greater reductions in systolic (-15.3 mmHg) and diastolic (-6.4 mmHg) BP than control (-11.8 and -2.6 mmHg, respectively) from baseline to 6 months (p < .05). At 6 months, 43% of intervention participants compared to 21% of controls achieved a HTN stage <130/80 mmHg (p < .001). The 10-year CVD risk reduction was two times greater for the intervention group than the control group based on the Framingham Risk Score calculator. All improvements for intervention participants were maintained at 12 months.
Conclusions: This trial represents one of the few rigorously conducted examinations of an Indigenous practice leveraged for health promotion, with implications for other ethnic populations.