Biological, psychosocial, and sociodemographic variables associated with depressive symptoms in persons with type 2 diabetes
Joseph Keawe‘aimoku Kaholokula, Stephen N. Haynes, Andrew Grandinetti and Healani K. Chang
Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Studies have found an association between glycemic status and indices of health-related quality of life in people with diabetes mellitus and comorbid depression. No study to date has examined the relative strength of influences of glycemic status and health-related quality of life on depression in people with diabetes mellitus, nor have important moderators in this relationship been examined. This study examined the relative strength of correlations between glycemic status and health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms and the degree to which those correlations were moderated by sociodemographic variables in 146 people with type 2 diabetes. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Centers for Epidemiological Studies—Depression (CES-D) scale. Health-related quality of life was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was used as a measure of glycemic status and body mass index and waist–hip ratio were measured. Results indicated that SF-36 scores accounted for a greater proportion of the variance in CES-D scores. The association between CES-D and SF-36 scores was moderated by HbA1c, sex, education, marital status, and social support. The implications and limitations of these results were discussed in the context of past studies.