Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking among Native Hawaiians
Joseph Keawe’aimoku Kaholokula, Andrew Grandinetti, Kamana’opono M. Crabbe, Healani K. Chang, and Cynthia K. Kenui
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
The present study estimated the prevalence of depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking and examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among native Hawaiians. Cross-sectional data from 524 rural, native Hawaiian from the Native Hawaiian Health Research Project are presented. Depressive symptoms were measured using the self-report Centre for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale. Information on smoking behavior and sociodemographic variables was collected. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 15%, and significantly higher among participants with lower educational attainment. The prevalence of current smokers was 32%, and significantly higher among younger adults and participants with lower educational attainment. Regression analyses reported a significant relationship between CES-D scores and smoking status as well as between CES-D scores and number of cigarettes smoked daily. However, when education and age were included in the regression models, the relationships were attenuated. The findings and implications of this study are discussed.