Ethnic and Gender Differences in 10-Year Coronary Heart Disease Risk: a Cross-Sectional Study in Hawai’i
Claire Townsend Ing, Hyeong Jun Ahn, Rachel Kawakami, Andrew Grandinetti, Todd B. Seto, and Joseph Keawe’aimoku Kaholokula
Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the US. In Hawai‘i, Filipinos and Native Hawaiians have the highest rates of CVD-related risk factors. CVD risk across these ethnic groups has not been examined. This cross-sectional study examines 10-year CVD risk as determined by the FraminghamRisk Score (FRS) across ethnic groups in Hawai‘i, controlling for clinical, demographic, and psychosocial factors.
METHODS: This study includes secondary data analysis of the Kohala Health Research Project dataset. All non-pregnant adults (≥ 18 years of age) who resided in the community of interest during the study period were eligible to participate with 1462 participants completing the clinical examination and surveys. This analysis included clinical, demographic, and psychosocial variables. Ethnic differences were examined using the chi-squared test and one-way ANOVA. Multiple linear regression on FRS was conducted and least square means of FRS were calculated.
RESULTS: Data from 1146 individuals were analyzed. Participants were 44.4% Native Hawaiian, 15.4% Filipino, 15.3% Japanese, and 25% non-Hispanic White; 55.4% were female and had a mean age of 48.8 years. For males, the unadjusted Japanese mean FRS was significantly higher compared with the other ethnic groups. For females, Filipino and Japanese mean FRS were significantly higher compared with Native Hawaiians and non-Hispanic Whites. In the fully adjusted model, there were no ethnic group differences in FRS among males and Filipinos had significantly higher FRS compared with non-Hispanic White among females.
CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional community-based epidemiological study examined ethnic differences in CVD risk after adjusting for age, depression, social support, and acculturation. The results suggest that some ethnic differences in CVD risk persist even after controlling for confounders but that recalibration of risk assessment is necessary.Download PDF